Python HTML解析器BeautifulSoup用法实例详解

本文实例讲述了python html解析器beautifulsoup用法。分享给大家供大家参考,具体如下:

beautifulsoup简介

我们知道,python拥有出色的内置html解析器模块——htmlparser,然而还有一个功能更为强大的html或xml解析工具——beautifulsoup,它是一个第三方库。简单来说,beautifulsoup最主要的功能是从网页抓取数据。本文我们来感受一下beautifulsoup的优雅而强大的功能吧!

beautifulsoup安装

beautifulsoup3 目前已经停止开发,推荐在现在的项目中使用beautifulsoup4,不过它已经被移植到bs4了,也就是说导入时我们需要 import bs4 。可以利用 pip 或者 easy_install 两种方法来安装。下面采用pip安装。

pip install beautifulsoup4
pip install lxml

建议同时安装"lxml"模块,beautifulsoup支持python标准库中的html解析器,还支持一些第三方的解析器,如果我们不安装它,则 python 会使用 python默认的解析器,lxml 解析器更加强大,速度更快,推荐安装。

创建对象

安装后,创建对象:

soup = beautifulsoup

格式化输出:

soup.prettify

beautifulsoup四大对象类型

beautifulsoup将复杂html文档转换成一个复杂的树形结构,每个节点都是python对象,所有对象可以归纳为4种:

1.tag类型

即html的整个标签,如获取 title 标签:

print soup.title
# title the dormouse's story /title 

tag有两个重要属性:name,attrs。

name

即html的标签名称:

print soup.name
#[document]
print soup.head.name
#head

attrs

即html的标签属性字典:

print soup.p.attrs
#{'class': ['title'], 'name': 'dromouse'}

如果想要单独获取某个属性:

print soup.p['class']
#['title']

2.navigablestring类型

既然我们已经得到了整个标签,那么问题来了,我们要想获取标签内部的文字内容怎么办呢?很简单,用 string 即可:

print soup.p.string
#the dormouse's story

3.beautifulsoup类型

beautifulsoup 对象表示的是一个文档的全部内容.:

print soup.name
# [document]

4.comment类型

html的注释内容,注意的是,不包含注释符号。我们首先判断它的类型,是否为 comment 类型,然后再进行其他操作,如打印输出:

if type==bs4.element.comment:
 print soup.a.string
# !-- elsie -- 

遍历文档树

1.子节点

contents

获取所有子节点,返回列表:

print soup.head.contents
#[ title the dormouse's story /title ]

children

获取所有子节点,返回列表生成器:

print soup.head.children
# listiterator object at 0x7f71457f5710 
## 需要遍历
for child in soup.body.children:
 print child
## 结果
 p name="dromouse" b the dormouse's story /b /p 
 p once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
 a href="http://example.com/elsie" 乐橙app下载rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a ,
 a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a and
 a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3" tillie /a 
and they lived at the bottom of a well. /p 
 p ... /p 

2.节点内容

string

返回单个文本内容。如果一个标签里面没有标签了,那么 string 就会返回标签里面的内容。如果标签里面只有唯一的一个标签了,那么 string 也会返回最里面的内容。如果tag包含了多个子节点,tag就无法确定,string 方法应该调用哪个子节点的内容,string 的输出结果是 none。例如:

print soup.head.string
print soup.title.string
#the dormouse's story
#the dormouse's story
print soup.html.string
# none

strings

返回多个文本内容,且包含空行和空格。

stripped_strings

返回多个文本内容,且不包含空行和空格:

for string in soup.stripped_strings:
 print)
 # u"the dormouse's story"
 # u"the dormouse's story"
 # u'once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were'
 # u'elsie'
 # u','
 # u'lacie'
 # u'and'
 # u'tillie'
 # u';
and they lived at the bottom of a well.'
 # u'...'

get_text方法

返回当前节点和子节点的文本内容。

from bs4 import beautifulsoup
html_doc = """
 html head title the dormouse's story /title /head 
 body 
 p b the dormouse's story /b /p 
 p once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
 a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" elsie /a ,
 a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a and
 a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3" tillie /a 
 and they lived at the bottom of a well.
 p ... /p 
 /body 
 /html 
soup = beautifulsoup
node_p_text=soup.find.get_text # 注意class_带下划线
print
once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
 elsie,
 lacie and
 tillie;
 and they lived at the bottom of a well.

3.父节点

parent

返回某节点的直接父节点:

p = soup.p
print p.parent.name
#body

parents

返回某节点的所有父辈及以上辈的节点:

content = soup.head.title.string
for parent in content.parents:
 print parent.name
## 结果
title
[document]

4.兄弟节点

next_sibling

next_sibling 属性获取该节点的下一个兄弟节点,结果通常是字符串或空白,因为空白或者换行也可以被视作一个节点。

previous_sibling

previous_sibling 属性获取该节点的上一个兄弟节点。

print soup.p.next_sibling
# 实际该处为空白
print soup.p.prev_sibling
#none 没有前一个兄弟节点,返回 none
print soup.p.next_sibling.next_sibling
# p once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
# a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a ,
# a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a and
# a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3" tillie /a 
#and they lived at the bottom of a well. /p 
#下一个节点的下一个兄弟节点是我们可以看到的节点

next_siblings、previous_siblings

迭代获取全部兄弟节点。

5.前后节点

next_element、previous_element

不是针对于兄弟节点,而是在于所有节点,不分层次的前一个和后一个节点。

next_elements、previous_elements

迭代获取所有前和后节点。

搜索文档树

1.find_all

find_all方法搜索当前tag的所有tag子节点,并判断是否符合过滤器的条件。

参数说明

name参数

name参数很强大,可以传多种方式的参数,查找所有名字为 name 的tag,字符串对象会被自动忽略掉。

传标签名

最简单的过滤器是标签名。在搜索方法中传入一个标签名参数,beautifulsoup会查找与标签名完整匹配的内容,下面的例子用于查找文档中所有的 a 标签:

print soup.find_all
#[ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a , a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a , a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3" tillie /a ]

返回结果列表中的元素仍然是beautifulsoup对象。

传正则表达式

如果传入正则表达式作为参数,beautifulsoup会通过正则表达式的 match 来匹配内容。下面例子中找出所有以b开头的标签,这表示 body 和 b 标签都应该被找到:

import re
for tag in soup.find_all):
 print
# body

传列表

如果传入列表参数,beautifulsoup会将与列表中任一元素匹配的内容返回。下面代码找到文档中所有 a 标签和 b 标签:

soup.find_all
# [ b the dormouse's story /b ,
# a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" elsie /a ,
# a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a ,
# a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3" tillie /a ]

传true

true 可以匹配任何值,下面代码查找到所有的tag,但是不会返回字符串节点:

for tag in soup.find_all:
 print
# html
# head
# title
# body

传函数

如果没有合适过滤器,那么还可以定义一个方法,方法只接受一个元素参数。如果这个方法返回 true 表示当前元素匹配并且被找到,如果不是则反回 false:

def has_class_but_no_id:
 return tag.has_attr and not tag.has_attr
soup.find_all
# [ p b the dormouse's story /b /p ,
# p once upon a time there were... /p ,
# p ... /p ]

keyword参数

注意的是,如果一个指定名字的参数不是搜索内置的参数名,搜索时会把该参数当作指定名字tag的属性来搜索,如果包含一个名字为 id 的参数,beautifulsoup会搜索每个tag的”id”属性:

soup.find_all
# [ a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a ]

如果传入 href 参数,beautiful soup会搜索每个tag的"href"属性:

soup.find_all)
# [ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" elsie /a ]

使用多个指定名字的参数可以同时过滤tag的多个属性:

soup.find_all, id='link1')
# [ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" three /a ]

在这里我们想用 class 过滤,不过 class 是 python 的关键词,这怎么办?加个下划线就可以:

soup.find_all
# [ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" elsie /a ,
# a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a ,
# a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3" tillie /a ]

attrs参数

有些tag属性在搜索不能使用,比如html5中的 " data-* " 自定义属性:

data_soup = beautifulsoup
data_soup.find_all
# syntaxerror: keyword can't be an expression
## 但是可以通过 find_all 方法的 attrs 参数定义一个字典参数来搜索包含特殊属性的tag
data_soup.find_all
# [ div data-foo="value" foo! /div ]

text参数

通过 text 参数可以搜搜文档中的字符串内容。与 name 参数的可选值一样,text 参数接受字符串 、正则表达式 、列表、true。

soup.find_all
# [u'elsie']
soup.find_all
# [u'elsie', u'lacie', u'tillie']
soup.find_all) # 模糊查找
[u"the dormouse's story", u"the dormouse's story"]

limit参数

find_all 方法返回全部的搜索结构,如果文档树很大那么搜索会很慢。如果我们不需要全部结果,可以使用 limit 参数限制返回结果的数量。效果与sql中的limit关键字类似,当搜索到的结果数量达到 limit 的限制时,就停止搜索返回结果。

soup.find_all
# [ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" elsie /a ,
# a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a ]

recursive参数

调用tag的 find_all 方法时,beautifulsoup会检索当前tag的所有子孙节点,如果只想搜索tag的直接子节点,可以使用参数 recursive=false。

soup.html.find_all
# [ title the dormouse's story /title ]
soup.html.find_all

2.find

它与 find_all 方法唯一的区别是 find_all 方法的返回结果是值包含一个元素的列表,而 find 方法直接返回结果。

3.find_parents 和 find_parent

find_all 和 find 只搜索当前节点的所有子节点,孙子节点等。find_parents 和 find_parent 用来搜索当前节点的父辈节点,搜索方法与普通tag的搜索方法相同,搜索文档搜索文档包含的内容。

4.find_next_siblings 和 find_next_sibling

这2个方法通过 .next_siblings 属性对当 tag 的所有后面解析的兄弟 tag 节点进行迭代, find_next_siblings 方法返回所有符合条件的后面的兄弟节点,find_next_sibling 只返回符合条件的后面的第一个tag节点。

5.find_previous_siblings 和 find_previous_sibling

这2个方法通过 .previous_siblings 属性对当前 tag 的前面解析的兄弟 tag 节点进行迭代, find_previous_siblings 方法返回所有符合条件的前面的兄弟节点,find_previous_sibling 方法返回第一个符合条件的前面的兄弟节点。

6.find_all_next 和 find_next

这2个方法通过 .next_elements 属性对当前 tag 的之后的 tag 和字符串进行迭代, find_all_next 方法返回所有符合条件的节点, find_next 方法返回第一个符合条件的节点。

7.find_all_previous 和 find_previous

这2个方法通过 .previous_elements 属性对当前节点前面的 tag 和字符串进行迭代,find_all_previous 方法返回所有符合条件的节点, find_previous方法返回第一个符合条件的节点。

css选择器

我们在写 css 时,标签名不加任何修饰,类名前加点,id名前加 #,在这里我们也可以利用类似的方法来筛选元素,用到的方法是 soup.select,返回类型是 list。

通过标签名查找

print soup.select
#[ title the dormouse's story /title ]
print soup.select
#[ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a , a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a , a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3" tillie /a ]
print soup.select
#[ b the dormouse's story /b ]

通过类名查找

print soup.select
#[ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a , a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a , a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3" tillie /a ]

通过 id 名查找

print soup.select
#[ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a ]

组合查找

组合查找即和写 class 文件时,标签名与类名、id名进行的组合原理是一样的,例如查找 p 标签中,id 等于 link1的内容,二者需要用空格分开。

print soup.select
#[ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a ]

直接子标签查找:

print soup.select
#[ title the dormouse's story /title ]

属性查找

查找时还可以加入属性元素,属性需要用中括号括起来,注意属性和标签属于同一节点,所以中间不能加空格,否则会无法匹配到。

print soup.select
#[ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a , a href="http://example.com/lacie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link2" lacie /a , a href="http://example.com/tillie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link3" tillie /a ]
print soup.select
#[ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a ]

同样,属性仍然可以与上述查找方式组合,不在同一节点的空格隔开,同一节点的不加空格:

print soup.select
#[ a href="http://example.com/elsie" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" id="link1" !-- elsie -- /a ]

以上的 select 方法返回的结果都是列表形式,可以遍历形式输出,然后用 string或get_text 方法来获取它的内容:

soup = beautifulsoup
print type)
print soup.select[0].get_text
for title in soup.select:
 print title.get_text

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